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Vultology (from vultus "expression, appearance, demeanor" and -λογία -logia, "study of" or "research") is the study of human conversational expressions and body language, specifically as it relates to aspects of psychology. Vultology is one of four domains comprising the Model 2 methodology and works closely with the behavioral domain to perform experiments on the connection between human expressions and psychology.


The fundamental units of vultology are expressions. An expression typically consists of a body action or motion spanning from less than a second up to approximately 5 seconds. While every action taken is part of a person's total expression, vultology limits itself to conversational expressions. There are three categories of expressions that comprise a person's vultology: emotions, persona and processing. The CT model focuses chiefly on processing, but uses an understanding of the other two categories to clarify and account for differences in manifestation of processing expressions.


Emotional expressions refer to actions on the face that are correlated to emotional states. The most notable research in this field is the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) developed by Paul Ekman. The aim of this field is to read the emotional state of the subject by the analysis of signals that correspond to emotional states. These include the seven universal emotions (fear, anger, sadness, disgust, contempt, surprise and enjoyment), the presence of positive emotions, negative emotions and signals of deception.


Persona refers to cultural displays that have symbolic meaning within a given context. These displays may include winking, arm crossing, regal stances, power poses, territorial displays and virtue signals like chest puffing. These expressions communicate interpersonal dynamics and are the subject of books such as What Every Body Is Saying (2008) by Joe Navarro. Persona displays are used in FBI profiling and interrogations.


Processing refers to action signals that are neither strictly emotions or persona signals, but which the body evidences as a byproduct of cognitive processing. These may include rapid saccades, scowling at the ground, gesticulations, eyes darting upward or eyes disengaging downward. In the CT model, these expressions are believed to be the result of certain mental states activating and deactivating in real-time as a person manages different types of information.


The identification of expressive units (U's) is followed by an examination of significant correlations among those expressions into clusters (C's). Signal clusters are sets of expressions that are linked together in a statistically significant manner. The vultology domain investigates the natural emergence of signal clusters across the population. Current work has relied on the manual grouping of signals together by tally count, however, upcoming methods will use factor analysis, in tandem with computer vision, to independently verify the existence of these signal clusters across much larger databases.


At any given time, the existing and catalogued clusters are placed into a code known as the Vultology Code (VC). The table below depicts Code 3.1 as of December 10, 2021.

Energetic Clusters

Rigidity (corr: J) Fluidity (corr: P)
R-1 Rigid Posture

R-2 Body Centric

R-3 Punctuated Motions

R-4 Vertical Movements

R-5 Subordinate Fluidity

F-1 Fluid Posture

F-2 Eye Centric

F-3 Gliding Motions

F-4 Horizontal Movements

F-5 Subordinate Rigidity

Proactive Rigidity (corr: Je) Reactive Rigidity (corr: Ji) Proactive Fluidity (corr: Pe) Reactive Fluidity (corr: Pi)
PR-1 Head Pushes

PR-2 Head Shakes

PR-3 Shoulder Shrugs

PR-4 Fluent Articulation

PR-5 Projecting Hands

RR-1 Poised Receding

RR-2 Disengaging Eyes

RR-3 Exerted Pushes

RR-4 Momentum Halting

RR-5 Meticulous Hands

PF-1 Restless Momentum

PF-2 Toggling Eyes

PF-3 Body Swaying

PF-4 Casual Hands

PF-5 Alert Perk-ups

RF-1 Viscous Inertia

RF-2 Fixed Gaze

RF-3 Diagonal Eye-Drifts

RF-4 Searching Scowling

RF-5 Narrow Head Zoning

Style Clusters

Candid (corr: Fi/Te) Measured (corr: Ti/Fe) Grounded (corr: Ni/Se) Suspended (corr: Si/Ne)
Ca-1 Taut Nasolabial Area

Ca-2 Vertical Snarling Smiles

Ca-3 Four Point Pulling

Ca-4 Wobbling Lips

Ca-5 Asymmetrical Smirks

Ca-6 Sassy Movements

Ca-7 Plateau Velocity

Ca-8 Nasal-Breathy Voice

Ca-9 Grasping Hands

Ms-1 Lax Nasolabial Area

Ms-2 Horizontal Curtain Smiles

Ms-3 Two Point Pulling

Ms-4 Symmetrical Lips

Ms-5 Emotional Neutralization

Ms-6 Coordinated Movements

Ms-7 Parabolic Velocity

Ms-8 Laryngeal-Faint Voice

Ms-9 Puppeteer Hands

Gr-1 Taut Preseptal Area

Gr-2 Lax Pretarsal Area

Gr-3 Taut Outer Edges

Gr-4 Frontalis Scowling

Gr-5 Pointed Eye Toggles

Gr-6 Eye-Head Parallel Motion

Gr-7 Grounding Effect

Gr-8 Bodily Awareness

Su-1 Lax Preseptal Area

Su-2 Taut Pretarsal Area

Su-3 Lax Outer Edges

Su-4 Procerus Scowling

Su-5 Brushstrokes Eye Toggles

Su-6 Eye-Head Trailing Motions

Su-7 Levity Effect

Su-8 Gangly Movements


Official vultology classification is handled by the vultology website and given as a combination of the clusters most prominently displayed, for example Proactive - Rigid - Measured - Grounded (or PR-Ms-Gr). This classification is tautological, as the vultology domain by itself only aims to identify emergent clusters and to organize a code according to these clusters by which people can be placed along a spectrum. Therefore this classification simply verifies different action signatures among individuals, remaining agnostic as to their meaning.

Psychological Significance

The psychological significance of these classifications is handled by other domains, which work to identify behavioral, psychological and cognitive traits that are represented with statistical significance among those who share the same classification. These known statistical details are provided alongside a vultology report as part of an ongoing investigation.