Model 1

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Model 1 (1.5) is an earlier version of the CT model, formulated using a Jungian framework and nomenclature. The model was first introduced by J.E. Sandoval in a 2013 video series and later published in his 2016 book Cognitive Type: The Algorithm of Human Consciousness as Revealed via Facial Expressions. The model was described as "the physical realization of that very same essential psychology" introduced by Carl Jung in Psychological Types, and which was "now understood through a concrete and quantifiable form." It introduced the term vultology and suggested a methodology for determining type empirically. The model was succeeded by Model 2 in 2021, which broke away from a Jungian framework to pursue scientific testing.


In 2010 Sandoval first began investigating human conversational expressions to examine claims made by his acquaintance Jonathan Rock[1]. Rock had learned a vultology practice from Thomas Chenault, alleging to reveal a person's cognitive typology through physiological cues, and describing an empirical link between expressions and the phenomenon behind what Jung approximated through psychological types. Following a brief period of collaboration with Thomas' Podlair group, Sandoval left the group due to disagreements in methodology and group culture. Sandoval argued[2] that Podlair's methodology, being highly qualitative and tacit, disallowed for proper experimental control, and that a more quantitative approach was necessary. The Podlair culture was also accused of cultish behavior and an over-reliance on the authority of Thomas by the typology community, both of which were later confirmed by the core members of the group after a fall-out period[3].

Sandoval then decided to investigate the connection between conversational expressions and psychology independently and from an atheoretical perspective[4]. He founded the Motus Project, dedicated to mapping the entirety of human expressions and mannerisms. Videos were manually converted to hundreds of 3-5 second GIFs and connected together into naturally occurring clusters. However, after collecting a few thousand GIFs, the project proved to be too labor intensive and costly, lacking the necessary research funding. Sandoval decided instead to tackle a more narrow question and study whether conversational expressions naturally aggregated around Jungian types, as defined by Naomi Quenk. The investigation revealed a positive correlation between various expressions and Jungian types, which he documented and continued to explore over the course of years. After securing funding from an Indiegogo campaign[5] for publication, the results of these informal studies were published in his 2016 book, as a summary of his personal observations, and urged for more investigation from the scientific community.

Succession by Model 2

Between 2016-2021, further exploration of the connection between vultology and psychology lead Model 1 to redefine Jungian nomenclature (such as Thinking, Feeling, iNtuition and Sensing) to align with what was evidenced through vultological analysis. As a result, the terminology increasingly diverged away from a theoretical match with Jungian concepts. In 2020 the decision was made to break away from Jungian nomenclature to avoid confusion with existing Jungian literature, as well as to prepare for the scientific investigation of the phenomenon in question, without equivocation with a highly diverse range of interpretations of Jungian concepts. Sandoval suggested that a proper scientific investigation of the CT phenomenon would require removing dependency on Jung's unverified[6] concepts, so that the data can independently guide the theory without bias. He proposed that even if the phenomenon in question is the same as that which Jung encountered in life, the phenomenon would still need to be quantified scientifically using a new nomenclature that describes the data via a new experimental language.

Continual use of Jungian nomenclature

See main article at: Model 2 vs 1 Differences

The nomenclature of Model 1 is still used within the CT community as a bridge language to communicate between Model 2 and alternative Jungian theories, although the parity between the terms may vary from theory to theory. To help alleviate confusion that may result from this variability, the CT model introduced a series of articles to measure the level of parity that may exist between itself and another theory when in discussion.